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Memorials to victims of the Holocaust, known as “stolpersteine” or “stumbling blocks,” are found throughout Europe from Trondheim, Norway to Thessaloniki, Greece. More than 75,000 of these brass plaques, created by German artist Gunter Demnig, have been placed outside the former homes of the victims, whose names are engraved on the plaques. “Emordet”— “Murdered” — appears under their names.
These “stumbling blocks” have inspired the American Witness Stones Project that began in 2017 in Guilford. These Witness Stones, placed as markers, memorialize enslaved individuals. The project’s mission is “to restore the history and honor the humanity of enslaved individuals who helped build our communities.”